© William C. Ratcliff 2013 Here you will find all of our electronic media for the lab. Resources Links and downloads Complete lab packet Reading list Jacobeen, S., J.T. Pentz, E. Graba, C. Brandys, W.C. Ratcliff and P. Yunker. Cellular packing, mechanical stress and the evolution of multicellularity. Nature Physics. Online early. Ratcliff, W.C., M. Herron, E. Libby and P. Conlin. Nascent life cycles and the emergence of higher-level individuality. In press at Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 372: 20160420. Link. Download. Ratcliff, W.C., Fankhauser, J.F., Rogers, D., Greig, D. and Travisano, M. 2015. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast. Nature Communications 6: 6102. Open access link. Pentz, J.T., T. Limberg, N. Beerman, and W.C. Ratcliff. 2015. Predator escape: an ecologically realistic scenario for the evolutionary origins of multicellularity. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8:13. Open access link. Ratcliff, W.C., A. Raney, S. Westreich, and S. Cotner. 2014. A novel laboratory activity for teaching about the evolution of multicellularity.  The American Biology Teacher, 76: 81-87. Ratcliff WC, Denison RF, Borello M & Travisano M (2012) Experimental evolution of multicellularity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(5), pp. 1595-600 Grosberg RK, Strathmann RR (2007) The evolution of multicellularity: A minor major transition? Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst., 38, pp. 621-54. Szathmary, Eors, and J. Maynard Smith. "The major transitions in evolution." Nature 374 (1995): 227-232. Seeley, Thomas D. "The honey bee colony as a superorganism." American Scientist 77.6 (1989): 546-553. (Available in the ‘complete lab packet’ download.) Moeller, D.A. “Reading and analyzing a scientific article.”   Video protocol for staining yeast with Congo red and methylene blue Video protocols Video protocol for growing yeast from spores Great websites about teaching evolution National center for case study teaching in science Understanding evolution PBS’s evolution for teachers site BEACON center for evolution in action This zip file contains all of our teaching materials, as well as .docx versions of our labs (these are easier to customize). For the most up to date information on the Ratcliff lab’s experiments on multicellularity, go to their research website.